What Are Pressure Sores and How Can They Be Prevented?
Pressure sores are painful and difficult to get rid of. By being proactive, you can help alleviate much of the suffering your loved one or patient could unnecessarily be subjected to. Here are a few tips that can help you to make sure that you can prevent pressure sores from forming.
What is a Pressure Sore?
A pressure sore (sometimes called a bedsore) is an ulcer common to people who are bedridden or who spend extended periods of time sitting or lying in one spot with little to no movement. There are four stages of pressure sores.
Stage 1 is redness of the area, but the skin has not broken. Stage 2 is broken skin that begins to ulcerate due to constant pressure. Stage 3 goes beyond the upper layer of the skin and makes a “crater” in the tissue. Stage 4 is deep enough to reach the muscle and sometimes tendons and bone. The bony areas of a person’s body (usually the tailbone, hips, heels, and ankles) rub against bedding or other material until the skin is raw. Since the person is not moving very much, the area is not exposed to air, preventing it from healing.
Ninety-five percent of pressure sores are preventable with multiple methods available to help do so based on an individual’s needs and capabilities. If possible, you can help your patient get out of bed or a wheelchair and walk short distances a few times a day. If walking is not possible, changing someone’s position in his or her bed or wheelchair can reduce pressure on delicate areas.
For a patient in bed, change is recommended every two hours. For an individual in a wheelchair, four times an hour is the recommendation. If your loved one is not able to change position at all — for instance, a person with a spinal cord injury—you can put small pillows under parts of his or her body that will lift the sensitive areas. You can move these pillows periodically to mimic more changing of position.
Good Skin Care
Keeping your patient’s skin lubricated goes a long way in keeping his or her skin supple and free from ulceration. A person might not experience serious pain until stage 3 or 4 of a pressure sore. It is in his or her best interest to get it under control well before it gets to that point.
Good skin care allows the affected area to heal more quickly. If the skin has not yet reached stage 2, where it has split open, gentle washing and drying along with as much movement as possible will help keep it from worsening. If the wound has reached stage 2 or more, a dressing will probably be used to keep out germs and hold in moisture. It is important to wear gloves and use sterile dressings when treating bedsores, as they are particularly susceptible to infection.
Pressure sores are often unavoidable. It is possible, though, to lessen the harm they do to your patient by following a few guidelines. It is important that all caregivers are familiar with wound care. Special classes may be given in your area, and certification could be required under certain circumstances. By doing all you can to protect your loved one, you can help them to be safe and comfortable.
Choosing a Bed for Seniors: 3 Things to Keep in Mind
For many seniors, their golden years bring with them leisurely days and peaceful nights. Yet, as the body ages, simply getting in and out of bed can become a chore. That’s why you should bear the following three things in mind when choosing a bed for a senior.
According to the National Sleep Foundation, sleeping patterns change significantly as we get older. So, when seniors mention their inability to sleep, the issue is often cast aside as part of the aging process. However, a saggy mattress may be a contributing factor to a loved one’s lack of sleep. A droopy bed cannot support the body properly. As a result, seniors may experience insomnia, aches, and pains. Try rotating the mattress 180 degrees every six months, purchasing a latex topper or buying a hybrid mattress for added support.
Consider the elevation of the bed’s frame, the depth of the box springs and the loftiness of the mattress. When a person sits up on the bed, his or her feet should touch the floor. Otherwise, it’s hard to shift the weight forward to stand. The bed’s height should match a dining chair seat. If the bed is for a wheelchair-bound senior, it’s important to make sure the height of the bed is no greater than the height of the wheelchair. To facilitate accessibility, measure the bed from the floor to the top of the mattress. Alternatively, you can have the person sit on the edge of the bed to make sure the hips and knees align while the feet remain flat on the floor. If the bed is too high, you can remove the wheels from the frame. Other options include buying a lower bed frame, purchasing less bulky box springs or replacing the mattress to reduce the overall height.
Seniors who require assistance may benefit from the use of a hospital bed that lifts and lowers for an easy transfer. In addition, bed rails can offer stability. They prevent a person from rolling out of bed and provide something solid to grab onto when getting in or standing up. Check for gaps between the mattress and rails, and cover the openings to avoid entrapment risks.
Seniors need and deserve a good night’s rest, and a good bed can help resolve many of their sleeping challenges. Just remember to consider the support level, height and transfer capabilities to give them the best chance of sleeping peacefully through the night.
Difficult Conversations to Have With Elderly Loved Ones and How to Have Them
It’s not easy watching the seniors in your life get older. The parents and grandparents who took care of you through thick and thin are aging, and with each passing year, they need more assistance to get by. This role reversal can be tough to handle for independent-minded older adults, and that sets the stage for challenging, but necessary, conversations. Here’s how to approach them.
Needing Extra Help
Today’s elderly grew up in a time when self-sufficiency was expected. No older adult wants to feel less than fully capable. In most cases, the senior you’re concerned about has already noticed they need a helping hand, but they’re reluctant to ask. Chances are, they’ll feel relieved when you raise the subject. The best way to bring it up, however, is not by pointing out what isn’t getting done around the house. Instead, discuss how accepting aid can enhance their life by giving them more time to do what they enjoy. Suggest simple steps such as arranging for grocery delivery or lawn care. When they see the benefits of getting help, they often become receptive to accepting more.
It’s Time to Stop Driving
Losing the privilege to drive is a common concern among seniors. It means they can’t come and go as they please. They are becoming reliant on others and that isn’t easy for them. It can be scary when driving capacity becomes compromised due to aging, despite taking additional safety precautions. But when there have been too many near misses, it’s time to consider an alternative. Emphasizing the positives is the best way to approach this conversation. Point out the financial and time-saving benefits of not owning a car and have a transportation plan ready to present. Answering as many what-ifs as possible takes some of the stress out of giving up the keys.
All seniors eventually have to make end-of-life decisions, so filling out an advance directive or living will forms that describe preferences for care is vital. Without an advance directive, there’s no guarantee your loved one’s final wishes will be respected. Make the discussion easier by focusing exclusively on your special senior’s needs versus your ease as a caregiver.
Aging brings changes that require delicate conversations. By keeping the lines of communication on tough topics open, you can help your special seniors remain independent longer. It’s a win-win for everyone.
Please review our homecare offerings and contact us today if you feel a loved one can benefit from our services.